Elizabeth Rispens, Amanda Bron, Julie Lee, Jimmy Fukumoto
The purpose of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and to initiate tissue repair. The process of acute inflammation is initiated by resident immune cells already present in the involved tissue, mainly residentmacrophages, dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kupffer cells andmastocytes. These cells present on their surfaces certain receptors named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognise generic molecules that are broadly shared bypathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Inflammatory abnormalities are a large group of disorders that underlie a vast variety of human diseases. The immune system is often involved with inflammatory disorders, demonstrated in both allergic reactions and some myopathies, with many immune system disorders resulting in abnormal inflammation. Non-immune diseases with etiological origins in inflammatory processes include cancer, atherosclerosis, and ischaemic heart disease. A large variety of proteins are involved in inflammation, and any one of them is open to a genetic mutation which impairs or otherwise dysregulates the normal function and expression of that protein. The aim of this narrative review is to provide an overview of pathophysiology and treatments targeting arterial inflammation in these diseases.
Keywords: Inflammation; Immune cells; PRRs; PAMPs