Brain cell injury following cerebral ischemia and reperfusion: positive effects of ICAM-1/ neuroprotective role of Taurine


Pathophysiology of Cell Injury Journal  Volume 3, Issue 1, pages 10-21 June 2014

Jeffrey Foley, Antony Aryal, Liu Yan, Christopher Bell, Chung Tae-Young


Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the development of cerebral reperfusion injury. During reperfusion, activated neutrophil interact with endothelial cells and release cytokines which mediate inflammation. Some conventional drugs have been shown in animal experiments to provide effective neuroprotection. Although the actual mechanism is still unclear. Our data are consistent with the concept that functional outcome after stroke is dependent on the immune cell composition which develops following ischemic brain injury. Furthermore; the present study showed the mechanism of reperfusion injury and the potential therapeutic strategies of  Taurine.

Keywords: Brain cell injury; Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion; ICAM-1; Taurine

Full Text-PDFReferences

Choose an option to access this article:
1. Purchase this article at rate $55.00 and received Full-Text/PDF
You will have online immediate access to article following the completion of this purchase and you may download and print a copy of each article for your personal use.
2. Full-Text/PDF access through your institution subscription password:


  1.  Schaller B, Graf R. Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion: the pathophysiologic concept as a basis for clinical therapy. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2004; 24:351-371. [PubMed]
  2. Aronowski J, Strong R, Grotta JC. Reperfusion injury: demonstration of brain damage produced by reperfusion after transient focal ischemia in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1997;17:1048-1056. [PubMed]

  3. del Zoppo GJ, Mabuchi T. Cerebral microvessel responses to focal ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2003;23:879-894. [PubMed]

  4. Kanoski SE, Meisel RL, Mullins AJ, et al. The effects of energy-rich diets on discrimination reversal learning and on BDNF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the rat. Behav Brain Res 2007;182(1):57-66. [PubMed]

  5. Paciaroni M, Caso V, Agnelli G. The concept of ischemic penumbra in acute stroke and therapeutic opportunities. Eur Neurol 2009;61(6):321-330. [PubMed]

  6. Hu CP, Li NS, Xiao L, et al. Involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in cardioprotection of rutaecarpine in rats. Zhongnan Yaoxue 2003;1(2):67–70. [PubMed]

  7. Gunther A. Reduced activation hyperbaric volume and differential effects on glial cell treatment in rat permanent focal cerebral ischaemia. Eur J Neurosci 2005;21(11):3189-3194. [PubMed]

  8. Li ZY, Liu B, Yu J, et al. Ischaemic postconditioning rescues brain injury caused by focal ischaemia/reperfusion via attenuation of protein oxidization. J Int Med Res 2012;40(3):954-966. [PubMed]

  9. Chang Y, Hsieh CY, Peng ZA, et al. Neuroprotective mechanisms of puerarin in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain infarction in rats. J Biomed Sci 2009;16(9):1-13. [PubMed]

  10. Gupta YK, Briyal S, Sharma U. Effect of endothelin antagonist (TAK-044) on cerebral ischemic volume, oxidative stress markers and neurobehavioral parameters in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats. Life Sci 2005;77(1):15-27. [PubMed]

  11. Emsley HC, Smith CJ, Gavin CM, Georgiou RF, Vail A et al. An early and sustained peripheral inflammatory response in acute ischaemic stroke: relationships with infection and atherosclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 2003;139: 93-101.

  12. Guz G, Oz E, Lortlar N. The effect of taurine on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Amino Acids 2007; 32:405-11. 

  13. Li Q, Li Z, Xu XY, et al. Neuroprotective properties of picroside II in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Int J Mol Sci 2010;11(11):4580-4590. [PubMed]

  14. Fry AC, Farrington K. Management of acute renal failure. Postgrad Med J 2006;82:106-116. [PubMed]

  15. Boros P, Bromberg JS. New cellular and molecular immune pathways in ischemia/ reperfusion injury. Am J Transplant 2006;6:652-658. [PubMed]

  16. Hata R, Gillardon F, Michaelidis TM, Hossmann KA. Targeted disruption of the bcl-2 gene in mice exacerbates focal ischemic brain injury. Metab Brain Dis 1999;14:117-124. 

  17. Schaffer SW, Azuma J, Takahashi K, Mozaffari MS. Why is taurine cytoprotective? Adv Exp Med Biol 2003;526:307-321. [PubMed]

  18. Bouckenooghe T, Remacle C, Reusens B. Is taurine a functional nutrient? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2006;9:728-733. [PubMed]

  19. Mozaffari MS, Schaffer D. Taurine modulates arginine vasopressin-mediated regulation of renal function. J Cardiovasc Pharm 2001;37:742-750. [PubMed]

  20. Mozaffari MS, Schaffer SW. Chronic taurine treatment ameliorates reduction in saline-induced diuresis and natriuresis. Kidney Int 2002;61:1750-1759. [PubMed]

  21. Bornstein NM, Aronovich B, Korczyn AD, et al. Antibodies to brain antigens following stroke. Neurology 2001; 27:529-530.

  22. Yu SS, Zhao J, Zheng WP, Zhao Y. Neuroprotective effect of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol against transient focal cerebral ischemia via anti-apoptosis in rats. Brain Res 2010;1308: 167-175.

  23. Htun P, Fateh-Moghadam S, Tomandl B, et al. Course of platelet activation and platelet–leukocyte interaction in cerebrovascular ischemia. Stroke 2006;37:2283-2287.

  24. Winiarska K, Szymanski K, Gorniak P, Dudziak M, Bryla J. Hypoglycemic, antioxidative and nephroprotective effects of taurine in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Biochimie 2008;91(2):261-270. [PubMed]

  25. Guz G, Oz E, Lortlar N, et al. The effect of taurine on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Amino Acids 2007;32:405-411. [PubMed]

  26. Schuller-Levis GB, Park E. Taurine and Its Chloramine: Modulators of Immunity. Neurochem Res 2004;29:117-126. [PubMed]

  27. Sun M, Zhao Y-M, Gu Y, Xu C. Therapeutic window of taurine against experimental stroke in rats. Transl. Res 2012;160:223-229. [PubMed]

  28. Saransaari P., Oja S.S. Taurine release is enhanced in cell-damaging conditions in cultured cerebral cortical astrocytes. Neurochem. Res1999;24:1523-1529. [PubMed]

  29. Molchanova SM, Oja SS, Saransaari P. Properties of basal taurine release in the rat striatum in vivo. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol 2006;583:365-375. [PubMed]

  30. Stummer W, Betz AL, Shakui P, Keep RF. Blood-brain barrier taurine transport during osmotic stress and in focal cerebral ischemia. J. Cereb. Blood Flow. Metab 1995;15:852-859. [PubMed]

Print Friendly, PDF & Email